Copi, Irving, Cohen, Carl and Kenneth McMahon. 2011.For mathematics and reasoning, see:Introduction to Logic(14th edn.). Prentice Hall, Boston, Mass. and London.

Gensler, Harry J. 2010.The A to Z of Logic. Scarecrow Press, Lanham.

Hacking, Ian. 2001.An Introduction to Probability and Inductive Logic. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Layman, Charles Stephen. 2002.The Power of Logic(2nd edn.). McGraw-Hill, Boston.

Layman, Charles Stephen. 2005.The Power of Logic(3rd edn.). McGraw-Hill, Boston. [the most recent edition.]

Lipton, Peter. 2004.Inference to the Best Explanation(2nd edn.). Routledge, London.

Lipton, Peter. 2007. “Précis of Inference to the Best Explanation, 2nd Edition,”Philosophy and Phenomenological Research74.2: 421–423.

Manktelow, K. I. 2012.Thinking and Reasoning: An Introduction to the Psychology of Reason, Judgment and Decision Making. Psychology Press, Hove, East Sussex and New York.

Pirie, Madsen. 2007.How to Win every Argument: The Use and Abuse of Logic. Continuum, London.

Skyrms, B. 2000.Choice and Chance(4th edn.). Wadsworth, Belmont, CA.

Soccio, Douglas J. and Vincent E. Barry. 1991.Practical Logic: An Antidote for Uncritical Thinking(4th edn.). Harcourt Brace, Fort Worth.

Soccio, Douglas J. and Vincent E. Barry. 1997.Practical Logic: An Antidote for Uncritical Thinking(5th edn.). Cengage Learning. [the most recent edition.]

Buonomano, Dean. 2011.Brain Bugs: How the Brain’s Flaws Shape our Lives. W.W. Norton, New York and London.

Seife, Charles. 2010.On statistics and its pitfalls, see:Proofiness: The Dark Arts of Mathematical Deception. Viking, New York.

Paulos, John Allen. 1990.Innumeracy: Mathematical Illiteracy and its Consequences. Penguin, London.

Bram, Uri. 2012.For a longer bibliography on inductive reasoning, see:Thinking Statistically(2nd edn.). Createspace.

John M. Vickers, “Inductive Reasoning,”Of course, inductive reasoning is strongly related to probability (and, above all, epistemic probability). Good introductions to probability include the following:Oxford Bibliographies.

Galavotti, M. C. 2005.Informal logical fallacies present an omnipresent problem in argument and reasoning, and these can be divided into:Philosophical Introduction to Probability. CSLI Publications, Stanford.

Gillies, D. 2000.Philosophical Theories of Probability. Routledge, London.

Hacking, Ian. 2006.The Emergence of Probability: A Philosophical Study of Early Ideas about Probability, Induction and Statistical Inference(2nd rev. edn.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Hacking, Ian. 2001.An Introduction to Probability and Inductive Logic. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Mellor, D. H. 2005.Probability: A Philosophical Introduction. Routledge, London.

Childers, Timothy. 2013.Philosophy and Probability. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

A detailed list of the fallacies can be seen here:(1)Fallacies of relevance;

(2)Fallacies of defective induction;

(3)Fallacies of presumption;

(4)Fallacies of ambiguity (sophism).

Other fallacies relevant to economics include the following:

(1) Fallacies of RelevanceIrrelevant Appeals- Appeal to emotion (
argument ad populum)- Appeal to pity (
argument ad misericordiam)- Appeal to Force (
argumentum ad baculum)- Appeal to Authority (
argumentum ad verecundiam)- Appeal to nature (argument from nature)
- Appeal to Ignorance (
argumentum ad ignoratiam)- Red herring fallacy
- Irrelevant Conclusion (
ignoratio elenchi)- Straw man argument
- Ad Hominem Argument
- Poisoning the well
- Guilt by association
- Naturalistic fallacy
- Moralistic Fallacy
- Argument from silence (
argumentum ex silentio)- Genetic fallacy
- Gambler’s Fallacy
- Tu quoque
(2) Fallacies of defective induction- Argument from Ignorance (
ad ignorantiam)- Appeal to Inappropriate Authority (
ad verecundiam)- False cause
- Hasty generalization
- Faulty generalization
Other inductive fallacies- Slothful induction
- Overwhelming exception
- Biased sample
- Misleading vividness
- Statistical special pleading
(3) Fallacies of presumption (fallacies of illegitimate presumption)- Complex question
- False cause
- Begging the question
- Accident
- Converse accident
- No True Scotsman Fallacy (fallacy of ambiguity and presumption)
(4) Fallacies of ambiguity (sophisms)- Fallacy of equivocation
- Fallacy of amphiboly
- Fallacy of accent
- Fallacy of composition
- Fallacy of Division

(1)Paradox of thrift/saving

(2)Paradox of costs

(3)Paradox of debt

(4)Paradox of liquidity

(5)Paradox of tranquillity (Minsky).

**Links**

“Informal Logical Fallacies and Cognitive Biases,” June 28, 2011.

**External Links**

Bradley Dowden, “Fallacies,”

*Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy*.

Changing minds and persuasion

http://changingminds.org/

List of cognitive biases

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases

Edward Feser,“What is an ad hominem Fallacy?,” April 18, 2013.

Paradoxes are not fallacies. Fallacies are generally errors in first order logic. Paradoxes are a natural result of higher order logic. The Keynesian paradoxes are not true paradoxes. They result from Keynes's inability to completely shake off quantity of money thinking. This is really a category error, not a paradox.

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